The basis for the developed key figures is that packaging optimisation should focus on the following five strategies for resource efficiency (Hanssen et al., 2002):
- Optimise packaging to minimise all types of product loss in the value chain, from production to consumption.
- Optimise packaging to maximise amount of materials that are recycled after use, and the amount of recycled materials in the packaging (within restrictions defined in health and safety standards and regulations).
- Optimise the whole packaging to minimise the loss of efficient volume in transport and storage, i.e. gas, air, utility materials etc.
- Optimise packaging to minimise the total mass of packaging materials in the packaging system.
- Optimise packaging through minimisation of resource consumption and emissions from the manufacturing of packaging.